Added: Deangelo Arce - Date: 07.11.2021 08:53 - Views: 10514 - Clicks: 9630
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. An increasing awareness of the need to address sexual and orgasm experiences as part of life quality and an understanding of the great individual differences between women play Women for sex Turku in women's health and medical care across the specialities. Information is lacking as to how negative attitude toward self NATS and performance impairment PI are associated with sexual activity of middle-aged women.
We examined the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health and potential explanatory variables of NATS and PI. In multivariate analyses of the associations with the outcome variables, perceived health, NATS, and PI were used as covariates in 6 models in which exercise, menstrual symptoms, and illness indicators were taken into as well.
Sexual activity variables were associated with perceived health. When present, NATS formed associations with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas strenuous exercise formed associations with orgasm among 42—year-old women alone.
Strenuous exercise was not associated with orgasm experience among older women. Sexual activity deserves to be addressed more actively in patient contact at least with perimenopausal women. Impact of menopause on health or sexuality is still imprecise. Appropriate questions [ 1 ] have either not been asked or their outcomes are unclear [ 2 ]. Women's health has in part been connected with reproduction and gynaecological issues [ 3 ], and many practicing physicians believe that the period at or following menopause is associated with health-related problems [ 14 ] and with less sexual activity than before [ 56 ].
As an indirect example of health and wellbeing, a recent biological finding linked a woman's long late-life period after menopause with an increased of offspring [ 7 ]. Other similar social indicators are expected with health, sexual, and reproductive issues in the future. Perceived health status is an indicator of general health and life quality. High education and high household income have presented themselves as indicators of good health [ 8 ].
Some ambiguity is present in the findings, however. Poor economic life situation and unemployment ificantly reduced the mental health status [ 11 ]. Many menopausal or soon-to-be menopausal women continue to perceive their health to be good, take care of themselves, and live active and vigorous lives [ 1 ].
Women with higher education, regular exercise, and spare-time activities seem to feel better and have fewer complaints than those having less education, infrequent exercise, and no spare-time activities [ 6 ]. Further, 45—year-old women reported better health when they had experienced a nonterm pregnancy, were in fulltime employment, were separated or divorced, exercised more than once a week, engaged in swimming, and believed that menopausal women worry about losing their minds [ 12 ].
Women's sexual activities tend to occur within the context of a relationship [ 13 ], and many issues influence them [ 14 ]. Frequency of sexual intercourse appears to decrease with age but many Finnish women have let the researchers believe that climacterium rather than age would be to blame [ 1 ]. On the other hand, many sexual experiences are defined and studied using male-dominated paradigms [ 15 ]. And older individuals are thought to be sexually abstinent when they have medical problems or do not have a partner [ 13 ], which may or Women for sex Turku not be the case. Having an orgasm may be considered a powerful demonstration of a person's health status.
For instance, an inverse relationship was evident between orgasm frequency and mortality among men [ 16 ], but the same is not known about women. Higher orgasm rates are recorded for older people [ 17 ]. Lack or loss of sexual desire is one of the three most common sexual complaints in the general population [ 18 ], but physicians continue to be baffled about the condition.
It may be proper to say that the assessment of sexual disorders [ 19 ] is a continuously evolving process. Women experiencing climacterium early are likely to perceive the problem of lack of sexual desire as a difficult issue [ 9 ], more problematic than older women do [ 20 ]. Major and minor depressive disorders are relatively common among middle-aged women, more common among women than men before the age of 55 years [ 21 ]. These disorders are commonly thought to be associated with libido and sexual activity, and some components have been suggested to be associated with aging.
In a chronic pain population, two factors of the Beck Depression Inventory BDI [ 22 ] were consistently loaded: 'the physical and somatic function' and the 'negative view of the self' [ 2324 ]. It is not known how these components are connected with sexual activity of middle-aged women. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health as well as the roles of negative attitude toward self, performance impairment, strenuous exercise, and menopausal symptoms as the primary explanatory variables.
The present investigation involved two separate cross-sectional databanks from a year follow-up survey entitled the Health and Social Support HeSSup study. The Finnish Population Centre supplied 4 random Women for sex Turku stratified according to gender and age 20—24, 30—34, 40—44, and 50—54 years.
The comprehensive HeSSup baseline databank of with 21, persons available for analysis was used for the explanatory variables. The 2 nd databank entitled Quality of Life QoL Among Middle-aged Women that involved two older age groups of the HeSSup women with responses to a mail survey in was used to test outcome variables.
The older group of women was more active in responding than the younger one, and women with high levels of basic and professional education in both age groups responded more often than the rest [ 9 ]. Socio-demographic background analysis of the present sexual activity variables was published in [ 20 ]. The medical ethics committee response was that because the study used a survey with "healthy" participants and did not involve hospital or clinic patients, an ethics committee approval was not necessary according to the present Finnish law.
Instead, a voluntary response was adequate; the responding individuals also gave their informed consent with ature to link personal information via registries.
The frequency of sexual experience How often are you involved in sexual interaction or otherwise experience sexual pleasure; the experience may involve sexual intercourse or something else? Women including lesbian women having other preferences for sexual pleasure were given an equal chance to respond. The frequency of orgasm experience How Women for sex Turku do you experience orgasm? Lack of sexual desire was solicited as one of the list of menopausal symptoms and expressed as an intensity on a continuum from 1 to 10 1 having no lack of sexual desire at all, 10 having very severe lack of sexual desire For the present study, four were used: 1 no problem2—4 slight problem5—7 moderate problemand 8—10 severe problem.
The sum of 4 other menopausal symptoms sweating, hot flashes, vaginal dryness and tenderness, sleeping problems was used as an explanatory variable abbreviated SS. The menopausal symptoms were expressed as intensity on a continuum from 1 to 10 1 having no lack of sexual desire at all, 10 having very severe lack of sexual desire but only 4 were used for the present study: 1 no problem2—4 slight problem5—7 moderate problemand 8—10 severe problem.
The symptom SS was calculated by having at least 2 options, and theoretically, it had values from 2— Response options of perceived health How is your health? Those 2 were used for 3 reasons: the boundaries of the extreme were not clear, 2 made the analyses easier to handle, and by combiningsmall frequencies of the extreme were avoided in the multivariate analyses. Physical exercise was used as an example of a health activity How much have you exercised during your spare time or during trips to work in the last 12 months?
How strenuous do you estimate the exercise to be? Response options included walk, brisk walk, light jogging, or brisk jogging for activity, and none. A continuous variable was used in the analyses. For the sum, Women for sex Turku exercise was given weights. The NATS subscale included the following BDI items: mood, pessimism, sense of failure, lack of satisfaction, feelings of guilt, sense of punishment, self-dislike, self-blame, suicidal ideation, and crying.
Responses with more than 3 missing items were excluded. Each item scored 0—3. The observed mean values of the NATS subscale varied between 0 and 2. Higher mean values reflected greater negative attitude toward self. The PI subscale included the following BDI items: irritability, social withdrawal, indecisiveness, body image, work inhibition, sleep disturbance, fatigability, and somatic preoccupation.
The PI sub score comprised of the mean value of items. The observed mean values of the PI subscale varied between 0 and 2. Higher mean values reflected greater performance impairment. One item of the PI subscale had to do with sexuality and was excluded. Two other items loss of appetite, weight loss which produced a separate factor [ 24 ] were also excluded.
Visit to a health centre, outpatient hospital, or private physician during the last 12 months. Frequency and length of use of medications during the last year. Hormonal replacement therapy was not asked in the baseline questionnaire of the HeSSup study. Univariate associations between the sexual activity variables outcome variables and other variables were assessed using cross-tabulations.
Multivariate associations of the outcome variables with perceived health, NATS, and PI were based on cumulative logistic regression analyses. This is the logistic regression analysis for polychotomous outcome variable measured on an ordinal scale. Means and standard deviations for main effects in the different age groups 1. The associations of sexual activity with perceived health and explanatory variables of NATS, PI, strenuous exercise, and menopausal symptoms were analyzed with 6 models.
The adjustment of the illness indicators visit to physician, having health examination or therapy, use of medications was done in all six models. In addition to the illness indicators, Model 1 included perceived health alone, Model 2 included perceived health with NATS, and Model 3 included perceived health with PI. The statistical computation was performed with the SAS system for Windows, release 8. All statistical analyses were performed separately for 42—46 and 52—year-old women. There was a general tendency that high frequencies of sexual experiences and good perceived health coincided with each other in both age groups.
Next, 42—year-old women reported the frequency of orgasm experiences more clearly regardless of whether they perceived their health to be good or poor.
Good perceived health was equally distributed. Women who perceived their health to be good also reported mild intensity of lack of sexual desire. Poor perceived health seemed to be associated with the experience more clearly among the older women and with lack of sexual desire among the younger women. Lack of sexual desire appeared about equally serious for both age groups. Each main effect with t-test was statistically ificant. Univariate associations of sexual activity variables with analyzed explanatory variables separately for two age groups.
Associations of the sexual activity variables with analyzed explanatory variables among 42—year-olds. Adjusted for visit to physician and psychologist, having health examinations, sick leave, and life style change, use of heart medications, anti-depressants, sedatives, tranquilizers, and other medications see methods.
COR corresponds to change of standard deviation sd. Associations of the sexual activity variables with analyzed explanatory variables among 52—year-olds. Models 2—6 are complementing each other and will be examined more clearly in the next paragraphs. Perceived health formed non-ificant associations in Models 2—6.
NATS contributed negatively in close to equal strength among 42—year-olds and 52—year-olds in Models 2—5. When menopausal symptoms were added in Model 6, the association remained the same among 52—year-old women but became even more negative among 42—year-old women. PI was statistically ificant among 42—year-olds and 52—year-olds in Model 3 only. NATS contributed in close to an equal strength both alone and together with other variables in Models 2—5 among 42—year-old women.
When menopausal symptoms were added in Model 6, the association became more negative. Among 52—year-old women, NATS was the most negative in Model 2 but slightly increased in the positive direction in Models 3—6. PI was statistically ificant both among 42—year-olds and 52—year-olds in Models 3 and 4. Strenuous exercise contributed in the ificant positive vein in Models 5 and 6 among 42—year-old women alone. Menopausal symptoms contributed ificantly among 42—year-olds and 52—year-olds. After the adjustment of using "illness indicators," the association between perceived health and lack of sexual desire Model 1 was ificant and stronger in the 42—year-old age group than in the 52—year-old one.
The additional adjustment with NATS Model 2 decreased the association more among 42—year-olds than among 52—year-olds; the association was not statistically ificant. NATS was statistically ificant in Model 2 only. PI also contributed negatively in close to equal strength among 42—year-olds and 52—year-olds in Models 2—5. When menopausal symptoms were added in Model 6, the association increased slightly in the positive direction both among 42—year-olds and 52—year-olds.
The present study indicated that the role of perceived health was relatively small in the stated three sexual issues among 42—46 and 52—year-old Finnish women. Statistically ificant positive associations were observed in perceived health with sexual and orgasm experiences among 52—year-olds but not among 42—year-olds.
As an explanatory variable, negative attitude toward self NATS was associated with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas performance impairment PI was associated with the lack of sexual desire in both age groups. Strenuous exercise was associated with orgasm experiences in the age group of 42—46 years but not in the age group of 52—56 years.
Menopausal symptoms were associated with orgasm experiences and Women for sex Turku lack of sexual desire in both age groups. Educated women and 52—year-old women were more enthusiastic in responding to the present study than the rest of the women [ 9 ]. Self-assessed health is strongly associated with later Women for sex Turku and mortality [ 3 ], reflects health aspects not covered by other health indicators [ 28 ], and indicates a small decline with age among women but without the menopausal transition contributing to it [ 5 ].
In a summary, measures were used to determine self-reported health status and it was suggested that the outcomes of such measures reasonably well correlated with health status assessed by physician [ 8 ]. Women with good perceived health are known to visit their gynaecologists regularly [ 29 ]. In the present study, 52—year-old women with good perceived health reported a high frequency of both sexual and orgasm experiences and a near absence or a mild intensity of lack of sexual desire, whereas 42—year-old women who reported good perceived health indicated a mild intensity of lack of sexual desire alone.
Could it be that 42—year-olds will regard sexual and orgasm experiences as self-evident, whereas 52—year-olds are "realistic" about sex and sexuality in their age group?Women for sex Turku
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