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Text Only Version. Please note that this text-only version, provided for ease of printing and reading, includes more than s and may take up to 40 minutes to print. Printing this will print the introduction, both essays, the list of sites, and all of the descriptions for the sites featured in the itinerary.

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If you would like to print a specific section, click on one of the links below, and mark the section you would like to print. The destinations featured in the American Latino Heritage Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary reflect hundreds of years of American Latino heritage from the first Spanish expeditions to the New World and the early settlements to later contributions, struggles for civil rights, and much more. This section also provides a bibliography. View the itinerary online or print it as a guide if you plan to visit in person. The itineraries are created by a partnership of the National Park Service; the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers; and Federal, State, and local governments and Text horny girls in Puerto Presidente Franco organizations in communities, regions, and heritage areas throughout the United States.

The National Park Service and its partners hope you enjoy this itinerary and others in the series. The National Park Service preserves unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the national park system for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. The Park Service cooperates with partners to extend the benefits of natural and cultural resource conservation and outdoor recreation throughout this country and the world. There are serious gaps and inadequacies which must be remedied while opportunities still exist if the System is to fulfill the peoples need always to see and understand their heritage of history and the natural world.

You should continue your studies to identify gaps in the system and recommend to the areas that would fill them. It is my hope that we can make a ificant contribution in rounding out more of the National Park System in these next few years. Hartzog, Jr. National Park Service and American Latino Heritage Over Time From its early years, the National Park Service was cognizant that in our nation of immigrants there were stories of people who migrated to North America long before the first Englishman set foot on the eastern shores of what is now the United States.

By the middle of the 20th century, the National Park Service reconsidered the notion that prehistory ended, thereby casting cultures that predate the arrival of the first European into oblivion when Europeans came to discover, explore, and establish colonial settlements in North America. The National Park Service also acknowledged that, in the process of the western expansion of the United States in the 19th century, the histories of colonizing powers and cultures were subsumed and forgotten.

In the 21st century, the National Park Service is committed to expand the telling of our national story by examining the broader global implications of our national experience. The National Park Service initially focused on Spanish colonial history as the main vehicle to present the Latino heritage story, anchoring the story in a of small parks across the country that emphasized exploration and missionization of native groups by Franciscan friars. While exploration and missionization were common themes of Spanish colonial history, settlement, which represented the basis of Latino heritage, was largely ignored.

The first National Park Service area with a Spanish colonial theme was El Morro National Monument proclaimedwhich emphasized exploration at a time in Latino history when the settlement that began in in New Mexico represented the major Spanish colonial enterprise. Similarly, Salinas Pueblo Culture National Monument proclaimed ; name change focused on the missionization of pueblos but did not mention the colonial settlement from which the mission effort emanated--Santa Fe, New Mexico, which the Spanish founded in These all centered on exploration and conflict between explorers and American Indian tribes in the 16th century.

Still, the story of the Latino diaspora and settlement patterns of Spanish North America as a part of our national story went untold. Well into the 20th century, Spanish colonial history was misunderstood and suffered from the propaganda created in an earlier time and sustained for over four centuries. The main contributor to misconceptions was the Spanish Black Legend, which promoted the notion that Spanish colonials came to exterminate Indians and destroy cultures.

Therefore, they were unworthy of any divine blessings or human acknowledgement.

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The Spanish Black Legend contributed to the diminished role of Latinos in our national story. Spawned in the 16th-century Spanish-English rivalry that ended in England winning the war of propaganda, the Black Legend perpetuated negative stereotypical notions about Spain and its people who settled the Americas. Thus, the dichotomy of England as the good empire and Spain as the evil empire emerged in American lore, history, and literature.

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Negative beliefs about Spain prevailed and became embedded in U. Very little in textbooks revealed much about Spanish colonial enterprises, settlementand governance other than the role of exploration and conquest in our national story. History books influenced a resurgence of the 16th century propaganda in negatively narrating the histories of the Battle of the Alamothe Mexican Warand the Spanish-American War Such biases are reflected in issues dealing with immigration from Mexico or Latin America.

The writing of the history of Spanish colonialism through the lens of Spanish Black Legend stereotypes has had a negative influence on how Latino heritage is viewed. Understanding the underpinnings of negative views of Latino history and heritage in the past contributes to a more positive approach and appreciation of a people who have participated in the local, regional, and national historical process of the development of North America from the earliest European migrations across the Atlantic that began over years ago.

Latino heritage and culture are not monolithic. Interpreting the American Latino heritage is ever more challenging when one considers that the Latino culture has many faces basically comprised of five heritages inclusive of Spanish, Indian, African, Asian, and Anglo-American. To make the American Latino heritage national story accessible, relevant, and inclusive, the interpretation of the Latino heritage at National Parks, National Historic Landmarks, National Heritage Areas, and at other historic places requires an understanding of what the Latino identity and experience are in the diverse ethnic and geographical sections of the United States.

Inthe commemoration of the th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' first voyage evoked both negative and positive responses. The National Park Service responded positively Text horny girls in Puerto Presidente Franco preparing for the event and creating the Spanish Colonial Research Center at the University of New Mexico campus in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to conduct research in international archives; develop a database of archival materials; produce publications; establish Spanish-language translation services for National Parks, sister agencies, and local entities; and carry out training courses for interpreters and public events.

Translations have made National Parks more welcoming and accessible and encouraged the visitor to learn about the American heritage in all of its dimensions. National Parks associated with Spanish colonial themes became more relevant, fair, inclusive, and accessible through the narration of the Spanish colonial legacy as part of our national experience. That legacy must be expanded to include the rest of the Latino heritage in American history. Of nearly National Parks, have a direct or indirect association with the American Latino heritage experience.

In addition, historic sites in communities throughout the nation illustrate the important role of Latino people in the American story. Some of them already are in our National Register of Historic Places, which the National Park Service expands and maintains for the nation. Many more are worthy of recognition. Visitors to these historic places can experience Latino heritage as a part of our national story running from the Spanish colonial period, through 19th- and 20th-century events to the present. Today, the National Park Service is exploring the American Latino heritage experience in both the 19th- and 20th-centuries that represents the broad participation and contributions of Latinos in our national story.

National Parks that deal with the Spanish colonial period out those that illustrate any other period of the history of the Latino heritage and experience and too few historic sites that illustrate the breadth of Latino heritage are deated as National Historic Landmarks or listed in the National Register.

In order to expand the commemoration of the Latino experience as an integral part of our national story, the National Park Service has developed a special American Latino Heritage Theme Study to enhance current approaches taken to tell about the Latino experience in America. The American Latino Theme Study encourages the NPS and other agencies to define a balanced and complete representation of the nation's Latino heritage. Written by a team of noted scholars, the Latino Theme Study serves as an aid to identify "gaps" that presently exist in the units of the National Park System and in the deation of National Historic Landmarks related to Latino heritage.

The theme study also helps interested people in identifying other historic places that are worthy of National Register listing in communities throughout the nation. In the long run, areas associated with Latino heritage themes that are presently outside the National Park Service could potentially be added to the National Park Service System, be deated National Historic Landmarks, and be listed in the National Register. To that end, the National Park Service encourages the public to assist in identifying historic places associated with the American Latino heritage that may be eligible for the National Register or for deation as National Historic Landmarks.

The history of the Latino heritage began with the European discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus, which introduced European cultural traditions including language, law, governance, religion, lore, science, technology, and a literary tradition to the Americas based on values developed throughout the history of western civilization. Beginning with Columbus' journals and correspondence concerning his four Text horny girls in Puerto Presidente Franco, a written tradition quickly grew in the Americas.

Text horny girls in Puerto Presidente Franco millions of s of documents; maps; and artistic sketches of flora, fauna, and Native Americans of North America can be found in the archives and depositories of Spain, Mexico, the Caribbean, and the United States. From Columbus' first voyage to the end of the colonial period, Spanish place names dotted colonial maps of the Western Hemisphere.

As towns were established, ro, walls, bridges, and buildings were among the many structures built in the New World. In North America, particularly the area of present-day United States, the Spanish colonial heritage dates to the earliest exploration of the Atlantic seaboard. The development of the historical patrimony of North America paralleled the successive national expansions by Spain, England, France, and the United States. Spain's pioneering frontier movement in North America grew out of the conquest of Cuba and the islands in the Caribbean in the east and Mexico on the mainland.

The list of States in the United States with Hispanic cultural and historical influence is impressive. The Spanish Empire ificantly touched a vast area stretching along the California coast past Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. Virginia and the Carolinas are not without their Hispanic past, for explorers and missionaries were among the first Europeans to touch their shores.

In many cases, history, ethnic composition, place names, linguistics, and cultural manifestations are a part of the Latino legacy that Spanish colonialism in North America spawned. Because of Spanish colonialism, the United States shares a common heritage with the rest of the Western Hemisphere. Inhe laid the foundations for the establishment of San Juan, one of the oldest European cities in the Americas. The Spanish formally established San Juan, Puerto Rico inten years after establishing themselves on the island.

The historic district of San Juan represents one of the longest colonial periods in the Western Hemisphere, for the Spanish claim to the island extended from to The Spanish constructed the massive coastal fortifications of San Juan to repel European invaders during the age of sail. In the Spanish-American War ofsteam-propelled vessels from the United States captured the island and Puerto Rico became one of its territorial possessions.

In the centuries that followed, much shipping passed the Tortugas and a of Spanish vessels foundered or wrecked in the area. The current runs through the Florida Strait into the Bahama Channel past the Carolina coast, eastward to the high seas, where it forks in two directions on its way to the Azores and Norway. Once in the Azores, Spanish ships refitted and returned to Spain. Corsairs of Spain's rivals quickly became aware of Spain's richly laden galleons passing through the Florida Strait and moved to occupy the many hideouts in the Bahama Islands.

From there they attacked Spanish ships as they toiled through the narrows to pick up the current. Spain was unable to eliminate the pirate menace in the area, and eventually resorted to using the convoy system to guide the galleons through safely. As in other parts of the Florida peninsula, Spanish explorers were active along the coast north and south of Cape Canaveral and Biscayne. In the early 16th century, Spanish explorers near Biscayne were unable to dominate the Tequesta tribe. Biscayne National Park interprets Spanish-Tequesta relations, demonstrating that the European presence may have led to political consolidation among them and that Spanish goods, acquired through trade or from coastal shipwrecks or raids against Spanish settlers, were a valuable contribution to their material culture.

The Spanish attempt to establish a mission north of the present-day Biscayne in the late 16th century failed because the Tequesta were hostile to it. By the midth century, the Tequesta were experiencing a decline caused by Creek raids and European diseases. Spain's claim to Florida was long-standing and costly, because the Indians of Florida destroyed nearly every expedition entrada between and InHernando de Soto led men to Florida; fewer than men survived.

Soto himself, nearly beaten to death by an Indian chieftain who had feigned friendship, later died from an unknown sickness, and his men laid him to rest in a watery grave in the Mississippi River. De Soto National Memoria l marks the generally accepted landing place of the expedition into what is now the southern United States. This expedition was the first to make contact with many Indian groups and to measure the invaluable resources of the area extending from Florida to the Mississippi River and beyond to eastern Texas.

Nearly every missionary who went to Florida during that period achieved martyrdom. Although meeting with disaster, the first European attempts to expand onto North America represented the first steps leading to the eventual European settlement of the continent.

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