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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence SV perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do.

Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. : Findings revealed that 2. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were ificantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys.

Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. Evidence from decades of research has shown that both boys and girls are vulnerable to SV victimization, girls are ificantly more vulnerable than boys, and males are the large majority of perpetrators of penetrative SV. SV can include any attempted or completed vaginal, oral, or anal penetration, as well as unwanted sexual contact i.

The national rates of penetrative SV victimization eg, rape are alarming and indicate that youth are overwhelmingly the victims. More than a quarter of male victims of completed rape In addition, 4. While we know victimization rates among U. Estimates of the prevalence of SV perpetration, broadly defined, from smaller studies range from 4.

In a study of approximatelypublic school children in grades 6, 9, and 12 in Minnesota, the authors found that 4. SV can occur in numerous types of relationships. Research has identified many important factors that are associated with SV perpetration within dating relationships, primarily among college students, such as impulsivity, having negative peer influences, and having hostile attitudes toward women.

SV perpetration of same-sex peers is also less studied. While there is extensive literature about physical violence involving peers eg, fighting, physical bullying, gang involvementinformation on SV victimization of or perpetration by non-dating peers is limited, and few SV studies to date have specifically examined non-dating same-sex peers.

To our knowledge, moreover, no studies have examined differences in SV perpetration across dating and same-sex peer relationships. Dating violence Basile LA sex dating physical, sexual, or psychological harm against a dating partner. The SV component of dating violence is less studied than the physical and emotional aspects of it, particularly among youth, with a few exceptions.

In the identified studies, rates of SV perpetrated in dating relationships vary given different samples and measures, and range from 4. There is scarce literature on SV experiences involving physical contact of or by a same-sex peer, but what is available suggests that it is not as common as opposite sex perpetration. However, studies that examine more non-contact sexual harassment behaviors tend to find more same-sex perpetration. Most of the work examining factors associated with SV has focused on opposite sex victims and perpetrators, such as heterosexual dating partners or acquaintances.

Few studies were identified that explicitly focused on the prevalence and correlates of SV by a same-sex peer. Borowsky et al 6 found that SV perpetration was associated with frequent use of illegal drugs, anabolic steroid use, and daily alcohol use.

For male adolescents, being emotionally healthy was found to Basile LA sex dating the likelihood of perpetration suggesting that depression may be related to increased likelihood of perpetration. Delinquency has been repeatedly associated with perpetrating SV.

A large portion of the violence research has examined attitudinal variables related to SV, particularly with regard to perpetration.

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For example, some have shown that sexist and violent attitudes toward women, attitudes that support and accept dating violence, traditional sex roles, and friendships with peers who endorse dating violence are linked to perpetrating sexual dating violence. At Basile LA sex dating family level, childhood experiences with violence and witnessing IPV are important correlates. For example, Borowsky et al 6 found that SV perpetration was associated with experiencing intrafamilial or extrafamilial sexual abuse, as well as witnessing family violence.

While less is known about protective factors for SV at the family or peer level, positive influences in the home, such as parental monitoring and parental support, have been found in some studies to be important correlates of SV perpetration. For example, the lack of parental supervision discriminated former male child victims of sexual abuse who abuse later in life from former male child victims who did not abuse later in life.

Peer influences have also emerged as important correlates of SV perpetration. For example, 1 study found that males who engaged in peer violence were more likely to perpetrate sexual aggression. While not truly community level factors because they were measured at the individual level, some studies have tried to understand the influence of connections and experiences in a person's community on SV perpetration.

For male adolescents, connectedness with friends and adults in the community has been found to decrease the likelihood of sexually aggressive behavior. The present study contributes to the existing body of knowledge in several ways. First, we identify the risk and protective correlates that are associated with being an adolescent perpetrator of SV in 2 different relationship types — dating and non-dating same-sex peer.

Few studies have focused on correlates of adolescent SV perpetration across different relationships. We examine correlates that have been linked to SV or another similar type of aggressive behavior either empirically or theoretically to better determine factors associated with SV perpetration across dating and same-sex peer relationships.

While these 2 types of relationships are different and thus they may have some different risk and protective factors, theoretically, SV perpetrated in either of these relationships could be explained by a combination of individual level traits and family and peer life experiences.

For example, Malamuth et al's 31 confluence model found that a mix of adverse childhood experiences i. While the current Basile LA sex dating is not longitudinal and did not capture all the variables included in models explaining SV perpetration, the current study includes many variables found in the literature to be associated with SV or other similar types of perpetration dating physical violence or bullying.

Based on work, we expect most of the correlates measured in this study to be associated with SV perpetration for both dating and same-sex non-dating relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence study, a cross-sectional survey of all public school students enrolled in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 in a school district in a high-risk community i.

Because of their low enrollment, students in grades 11 and 12 were grouped together to produce a sufficient of participants in the oldest of the 3 age groups. Active, ed, written parental permission and student assent were obtained from all students younger than 18 years of age, and students 18 years of age or older provided written consent before participating. Datawere collected in April from 4, students who voluntarily completed an anonymous, self-administered item questionnaire during a minute class period.

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Students received a gift card for participation. Logistic regression analyses of the associations between risk and protective factors and perpetration of sexual violence SV across dating and same-sex peer relationships among high risk youth in grades, 7, 9, 11, and SV perpetration was assessed within both dating and same-sex peer relationships. These 2 types of relationship were mutually exclusive for the purpose of this study because the Basile LA sex dating were asked about people they dated first, and then, when asked about same sex peers, respondents were directed to exclude dates, siblings or other family members.

Analyses were conducted separately for each relationship type. Unless otherwise specified, scale scores were computed for all explanatory variables and then dichotomized using a median-split. Delinquency was assessed using an 8-item measure based on the Delinquency Scale used in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health eg, Resnick et al All other respondents were categorized as having at least some gang interest or involvement. Because not all respondents reported having consumed alcohol, this variable was trichotomized into the following : non-drinker; drinker but no HED; and drinker with HED.

Impulsivity was assessed by a 4-item measure adapted from Bosworth and Espelage. Self-efficacy was assessed by a 7-item measure adapted from Bosworth and Espelage. Symptoms of depression were assessed using a 6-item measure developed by Orpinas.

Two scales were used to assess attitudes toward violence within dating item scale and same-sex peer relationships 8-item scaleboth of which were adapted from Foshee et al. The extent to which respondents felt that their parents monitored their behavior was assessed with a 7-item measure adapted from work by Loeber et al.

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Respondents indicated the extent to which their parents used positive rewards and encouragement for appropriate behavior with a 5-item measure adapted from work by Loeber et al. Respondents indicated the extent to which their friends had engaged in eight delinquent behaviors. Respondents indicated the extent to which they had adults at schoolfamily, and friends to whom they could talk to if needed using a 9-item measure developed by Vaux. Respondents indicated the extent to which they felt connected to their school using a 3-item measure adapted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health eg, Resnick et al Respondents indicated the extent to which they were Basile LA sex dating to six types of violence in their home, school, or neighborhood using a measure based on the work of Richters and Martinez.

There were some missing data, which was most prevalent for the 7 th graders who had difficulty completing some of the measures at the end of the questionnaire. Missing data were imputed under the Missing at Random MAR assumption using all available auxiliary variables to inform the missing data process. To do so, we used factor analysis to generate aggregate factor scores to represent the information from all of the variables in the dataset.

These factors were then included during the imputation process. Analyses for both relationship types i. First, logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each potential explanatory variable to identify the risk and protective factors that were ificantly associated with SV perpetration.

Fit of the final model was assessed in multiple ways. First, a likelihood ratio test was computed to assess the ratio of the maximized value of the likelihood function for the full model compared to the maximized value of the likelihood function for an intercept only model. A receiver-operating-characteristic ROC curve analysis was conducted to demonstrate the predictability of the final model. Finally, the youth sample was partitioned into ten groups according to their predicted probabilities for engaging in SV.

The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit chi-statistic was used to show whether the observed of outcome events ificantly differed from the predicted of outcome events for these ten groups low chi-square values with high p-values provide evidence for a good model fit with the data. The remaining respondents reported some other living arrangement eg, living with a single parent or other relative. The distribution of demographic variables in the dating sample was virtually identical to the full sample and no statistical differences were identified.

The rate of reported SV victimization was 6. In order to establish a foundation for subsequent analyses, an initial model containing only demographic variables eg, sex, grade in school, and family status was computed. Grade in school and sex of the respondent were the only demographic variables that were ificantly associated with the perpetration of SV against a date.

All subsequent models assessing associations with SV perpetration against a dating partner or a same sex peer were adjusted for demographic variables. As indicated in Table 1all of the individual level variables were ificantly positively associated with SV perpetration against a dating partner, and dating sexual victimization was a strong predictor.

Respondents' belief that they have the ability to avoid fights was protective against SV perpetration of a dating partner. Most family level variables were ificantly associated with SV perpetration against a dating partner.

Parental monitoring, parental positive affection, and social support were protective against SV perpetration of a dating partner. Of the 2 variables assessing community level influences, only exposure to violence in the respondent's community was ificantly positively associated with reported SV perpetration of a date.

Respondent sex was the only demographic variable Basile LA sex dating was ificantly associated with the perpetration of SV against a same-sex peer. Boys were 2. See Table 1 second column forwhich are similar to the for the dating relationships model. A multivariable model including the demographic variables, as well as those explanatory variables that were ificantly associated with SV perpetration against a dating partner in the initial analyses were included in a single multivariable model.

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Table 2 first column includes those variables that were retained in the parsimonious model predicting SV perpetration against a dating partner. The sex of the respondent and grade in school were ificantly associated with SV perpetration against a dating partner in the model data not shown. Multivariable logistic regression analyses of the associations between risk and protective factors and sexual violence SV perpetration across dating and same-sex peer relationships among high risk youth in grades, 7, 9, 11, and Of the 17 potential risk and protective correlates that were associated with SV perpetration against a dating partner in the preliminary analysis, only 6 variables were retained in the final model Table 2.

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SV victimization by a dating partner remained the strongest correlate, with those who reported SV victimization being 10 times more likely to also report perpetrating Basile LA sex dating against a dating partner. Of the remaining explanatory variables in the model, engaging in heavy episodic drinking, holding attitudes that endorse dating violence, being the victim of childhood sexual abuse, having delinquent peers, and being exposed to community violence were all associated with approximately a 2 fold increase in the odds of reporting SV perpetration against a dating partner.

Analysis of fit statistics indicated that the model fit the data well. As with SV perpetration against a dating partner, a multivariable model including the demographic variables and the explanatory variables that were ificantly associated with SV perpetration against a same-sex peer in bivariate analyses, were included in a single multivariable model. Of the demographic variables, only sex of the respondent remained ificant in the final multivariable model data not shown.

Table 2 second column includes the 6 explanatory variables that were retained in the final model. Engaging in other delinquent behaviors and being exposed to violence in the community were both associated with approximately a 2-fold increase in the odds of reporting SV perpetration against a same-sex peer. Similarly, engaging in heavy episodic drinking and being the victim of childhood sexual abuse were associated with more than a 3-fold increase in the odds of reporting same-sex peer SV perpetration.

One protective factor was retained: respondents who were high on social support from school, family, or friends were half as likely to engage in SV perpetration against a same-sex peer as those who were low in social support. As with the final dating relationship model, analysis of fit statistics indicated that the model predicting SV perpetration against a same-sex peer fit the data well. Findings Basile LA sex dating this study suggest that adolescents perpetrate SV in both dating and same-sex peer relationships and that several risk correlates and one protective correlate are associated with perpetration.

Controlling for all other variables in the model, boys were ificantly more likely than girls to be perpetrators of SV in both dating and same-sex peer relationships. Consistent with research, 517 the strongest correlate of perpetration in both contexts was by far, the experience of prior victimization in the same type of relationship. For example, Banyard et al 5 found that youth who were victims of sexual abuse in their life time were 21 times more likely to report perpetrating sexual abuse as an adolescent. However, even when controlling for victimization experiences, 3 other variables were found to be strong correlates - heavy episodic drinking, a history of child sexual abuse, and exposure of community violence.

All 3 were ificantly associated with SV perpetration against both dating and same-sex peers. Our hypothesis that findings would be similar across relationship types was partially supported because there were shared risk factors, but the type of relationship i. Attitudes toward violence are only ificantly associated with dating SV perpetration, most likely because the attitudinal questions were different for each relationship type. The delinquency factors are such that peer delinquency is associated with perpetration in dating relationships while the respondent's own delinquent behaviors are what matters in same-sex peer relationships.

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These findings are consistent with research of male perpetration, connecting negative attitudes toward women and negative peer norms to perpetration of sexual and other violence against a female dating partner. The only positive correlate or protective factor to remain in either of the final models was social support. Reporting a strong support system was associated with decreased likelihood of same-sex peer SV perpetration. One reason why social support may be more relevant in the same-sex peer context in this sample might be that same-sex peers are likely to be close in age so social support, at least from peer networks, may be stronger than social support in dating relationships; dating may be more common with older or younger partners who are not part of the peer social support network.

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Preventing Teen Dating Violence